Allergic states: Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable
to adequate trials of conventional treatment in asthma, atopic dermatitis,
contact dermatitis, drug hypersensitivity reactions, perennial or
seasonal allergic rhinitis, and serum sickness.Dermatologic diseases: Bullous
dermatitis herpetiformis, exfoliative erythroderma, mycosis fungoides,
pemphigus, and severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome).Endocrine disorders: Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone
or cortisone is the drug of choice; may be used in conjunction with
synthetic mineralocorticoid analogs where applicable; in infancy
mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance), congenital
adrenal hyperplasia, hypercalcemia associated with cancer, and nonsuppurative
diseases: To tide the patient over a critical period of
the disease in regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis.Hematologic disorders: Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia, congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic
anemia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
in adults, pure red cell aplasia, and selected cases of secondary
thrombocytopenia.Miscellaneous: Diagnostic testing of adrenocortical hyperfunction,
trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement, tuberculous
meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used with
appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy.Neoplastic diseases: For the palliative
management of leukemias and lymphomas.Nervous system: Acute exacerbations
of multiple sclerosis, cerebral edema associated with primary or metastatic
brain tumor, craniotomy, or head injury.Ophthalmic diseases: Sympathetic ophthalmia,
temporal arteritis, uveitis, and ocular inflammatory conditions unresponsive
to topical corticosteroids.Renal diseases: To induce a diuresis
or remission of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome or that
due to lupus erythematosus.Respiratory diseases: Berylliosis, fulminating
or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with
appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy, idiopathic eosinophilic
pneumonias, symptomatic sarcoidosis.Rheumatic disorders: As adjunctive therapy
for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode
or exacerbation) in acute gouty arthritis, acute rheumatic carditis,
ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,
including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require
low-dose maintenance therapy).
For the treatment of dermatomyositis,
polymyositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.
-- Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
-- A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
-- A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
-- A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
-- Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
-- seasonal variety of allergic rhinitis, marked by acute conjunctivitis with lacrimation and itching; regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific allergens.
Serum sickness (disorder)
-- Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.
-- Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.
-- The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
-- A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.
-- Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
Endocrine System Diseases
-- impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.
-- Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
-- A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.
Primary malignant neoplasm
-- Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
-- Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
-- A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
-- Inflammation of the intestines, but usually only of the small intestine. Regional enteritis increases the risk for developing colon cancer. Also called Crohn's disease.
-- Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
-- Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
-- Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
-- A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
-- Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
Pure Red-Cell Aplasia
-- Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.
Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction
-- abnormally increased secretion of adrenal hormones.
-- A disease due to infection with TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS. It is caused by eating undercooked meat, usually pork.
-- A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
-- New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
-- A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
-- A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
-- An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
-- The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
-- Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
-- Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.
Giant Cell Arteritis
-- A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)
-- subacute, granulomatous arteritis involving the external carotid arteries, especially the temporal artery; occurs in elderly persons and may be manifested by constitutional symptoms, particularly severe headache, and sometimes sudden unilateral blindness; shares many of the symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica.
-- Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
-- Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
-- The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
-- A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.
NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, STEROID-RESISTANT, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE
-- A chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease marked by skin rashes, joint pain and swelling, inflammation of the kidneys, inflammation of the fibrous tissue surrounding the heart (i.e., the pericardium), as well as other problems. Not all affected individuals display all of these problems. Also called systemic lupus erythematosus.
-- Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
-- A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.
-- WHAT: Sarcoidosis: Sarcoidosis: a disorder of unknown etiology that affects many organ systems with noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. It has a special predilection for the lung and lymph tissues. WHY: Sarcoidosis can result in an acute arthritis commonly affecting the ankles and knees and less commonly the proximal interphalangeal joints, wrists, and elbows. The acute arthritis is symmetric and lasts for a few weeks. A less common chronic arthritis is destructive and may have dactylitis and telescoping digits. HOW: Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion based on the clinical presentation and histology of biopsy tissue.
GOUTY ARTHRITIS ACUTE
Acute rheumatic heart disease
-- A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
-- A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLOARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
-- A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Chronic Childhood Arthritis
-- Rheumatoid arthritis of children occurring in three major subtypes defined by the symptoms present during the first six months following onset: systemic-onset (Still's Disease, Juvenile-Onset), polyarticular-onset, and pauciarticular-onset. Adult-onset cases of Still's disease (STILL'S DISEASE, ADULT-ONSET) are also known. Only one subtype of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
-- A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
-- Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
-- A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.