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Basic Drug Info
Drug Name:CEFAZOLIN
Manufacturer:GlaxoSmithKline
Other Info:



Clinical Trials:


Indications and Usage

Cefazolin is indicated in the treatment of the following serious infections due to susceptible organisms:RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella species, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.Injectable benzathine penicillin is considered to be the drug of choice in treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.Cefazolin is effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of cefazolin in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS due to Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species and some strains of enterobacter and enterococci.SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS due to Staphylococcusaureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and other strains of streptococci.BILIARY TRACT INFECTIONS due to Escherichiacoli, various strains of streptococci, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species and Staphylococcusaureus.BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS due to Staphylococcus aureus.GENITAL INFECTIONS (i.e., prostatitis, epididymitis) due to Escherichia coli, Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella species and some strains of enterococci.SEPTICEMIA due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species.ENDOCARDITIS due to Staphylococcus aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine susceptibility of the causative organism to cefazolin.PERIOPERATIVE PROPHYLAXIS: The prophylactic administration of cefazolin preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures which are classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal hysterectomy, and cholecystectomy in high-risk patients such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones).The perioperative use of cefazolin may also be effective in surgical patients in whom infection at the operative site would present a serious risk (e.g., during open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty).The prophylactic administration of cefazolin should usually be discontinued within a 24-hour period after the surgical procedure.

In surgery where the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g., open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of cefazolin may be continued for 3 to 5 days following the completion of surgery.If there are signs of infection, specimens for cultures should be obtained for the identification of the causative organism so that appropriate therapy may be instituted.(See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefazolin, and other antibacterial drugs, cefazolin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.

When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.

In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Infection -- Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.

respiratory infection -- Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.

Streptococcal Infections -- Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.

Rheumatic Fever -- A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with group A hemolytic streptococci and characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, especially of the heart, blood vessels, and joints (polyarthritis), and by the presence of Aschoff bodies in the myocardium and skin. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Urinary tract infection -- Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.

skin infection -- Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.

Arthropathy associated with infection --

Staphylococcus aureus infection --

prostatitis -- Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate, appreciated clinically as an enlarged, soft or tender prostate. Prostatic secretions contain large numbers of leukocytes.

EPIDIDYMITIS -- Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.

Septicemia -- systemic disease associated with presence and persistance of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood.

Endocarditis -- Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.

Acute cholecystitis -- Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.

Obstructive Jaundice -- JAUNDICE, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.

Communicable Diseases -- broad class of diseases whose causative agents may be passed between individuals in many different ways.

Physical findings -- Objective evidence of disease perceptible to the examining physician.

Contraindications

CEFAZOLIN IS CONTRAINDICATED IN PATIENTS WITH KNOWN ALLERGY TO THE CEPHALOSPORIN GROUP OF ANTIBIOTICS.WARNINGSBEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFAZOLIN IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFTAZIDIME, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS.

IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY.

IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFAZOLIN OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG.

SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, IV FLUIDS, IV ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefazolin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening.

Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridiumdifficile is one primary cause of ‘‘antibiotic-associated colitis.’’After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated.

Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone.

In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against C.

difficile colitis.
Hypersensitivity -- Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.

Immediate hypersensitivity -- Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Penicillin Allergy --

Allergic Reaction --

pseudomembranous colitis --

Diarrhea -- An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.

Colitis -- Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.


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