The following noncontraceptive health benefits related to the use of oral contraceptives are supported by epidemiological studies which largely utilized oral-contraceptive formulations containing doses exceeding 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol or 0.05 mg of mestranol.
Effects on menses: Increased menstrual cycle regularity.Decreased blood loss and decreased incidence of iron-deficiency anemia.Decreased incidence of dysmenorrhea.
Effects related to inhibition of ovulation: Decreased incidence of functional ovarian cysts.Decreased incidence of ectopic pregnancies.Effects from long-term use: Decreased incidence of fibroadenomas and fibrocystic disease of the breast.Decreased incidence of acute pelvic inflammatory disease.Decreased incidence of endometrial cancer.Decreased incidence of ovarian cancer.
Oral contraceptives are indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use this product as a method of contraception.
Oral contraceptives are highly effective.
Table II lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception.
The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization and the IUD, depends upon the reliability with which they are used.
Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates.
TABLE II: PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN EXPERIENCING AN UNINTENDED PREGNANCY DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF USE OF A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD Method Perfect Use Typical Use NA - not available *Depending on method (calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation) Adapted from Hatcher RA et al, Contraceptive Technology: 17th Revised Edition.
NY, NY: Ardent Media, Inc., 1998.Levonorgestrel implants 0.05 0.05 Male sterilization 0.1 0.15 Female sterilization 0.5 0.5 Depo-Provera® (injectable progestogen) 0.3 0.3 Oral contraceptives 5 Combined 0.1 NA Progestin only 0.5 NA IUD Progesterone 1.5 2.0 Copper T 380A 0.6 0.8 Condom (male) without spermicide 3 14 (Female) without spermicide 5 21 Cervical cap Nulliparous women 9 20 Parous women 26 40 Vaginal sponge Nulliparous women 9 20 Parous women 20 40 Diaphragm with spermicidal cream or jelly 6 20 Spermicides alone (foam, creams, jellies, and vaginal suppositories) 6 26 Periodic abstinence (all methods) 1-9* 25 Withdrawal 4 19 No contraception (planned pregnancy) 85 85
Combination oral contraceptives should not be used in women with any of the following conditions: Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders.
A past history of deep-vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders.
Cerebral-vascular or coronary-artery disease.
Thrombogenic rhythm disorders.
Diabetes with vascular involvement.
Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast.
Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia.
Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding.
Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use.
Hepatic adenomas or carcinomas, or active liver disease, as long as liver function has not returned to normal.
Known or suspected pregnancy.Hypersensitivity to any of the components of Triphasil (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets—triphasic regimen).
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular side effects from oral-contraceptive use.
This risk increases with age and with the extent of smoking (in epidemiologic studies, 15 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a significantly increased risk) and is quite marked in women over 35 years of age.Women who use oral contraceptives should be strongly advised not to smoke.