Proquin XR is indicated only for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (acute cystitis) caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms listed below.
Proquin XR is not interchangeable with other ciprofloxacin extended-release or immediate release oral formulations.
See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations.Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (acute cystitis) caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF PROQUIN XR IN TREATING PYELONEPHRITIS, COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS, AND INFECTIONS OTHER THAN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS HAVE NOT BEEN DEMONSTRATED.
Alternative therapy should be considered for patients who remain symptomatic or develop fever and back pain while on treatment with Proquin XR.To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Proquin XR and other antibacterial drugs, Proquin XR should only be used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.
When culture and sensitivity information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture: Fluoroquinolones, including Proquin XR, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages.
This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair.
Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported.
The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors.
Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported.
Proquin XR should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon.
Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non- quinolone antimicrobial drug.THE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PROQUIN XR IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND ADOLESCENTS (LESS THAN 18 YEARS OF AGE), PREGNANT WOMEN, AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED.
(See PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use, Pregnancy, and Nursing Mothers subsections.)Ciprofloxacin, as with other members of the quinolone class, causes arthropathy and/or chondroplasia in immature dogs.
Related quinolone-class drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
The relevance of these findings to the clinical use of ciprofloxacin is unknown.
(See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY)Central Nervous System: Convulsions, increased intracranial pressure, and toxic psychosis have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.
Ciprofloxacin may also cause CNS events including: dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts.
The reactions may occur following the first dose.
If these reactions occur in patients receiving ciprofloxacin, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted.
As with all quinolones, ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction).
(See PRECAUTIONS: General, Information for Patients, Drug Interactions, and ADVERSE REACTIONS)Theophylline: SERIOUS AND FATAL REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS RECEIVING CONCURRENT ADMINISTRATION OF FLUOROQUINOLONES, INCLUDING CIPROFLOXACIN, AND THEOPHYLLINE.
These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus, and respiratory failure.
Although similar adverse effects have been reported in patients receiving theophylline alone, the possibility that these reactions may be potentiated by Proquin XR cannot be eliminated.
If concomitant use cannot be avoided, serum levels of theophylline should be monitored and dosage adjustments made as appropriate.Hypersensitivity Reactions: Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.
These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses.
Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:fever, rash or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome);vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;allergic pneumonitisinertstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;anemia, including hemolytic and apalstic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hemtologic abnormalities.The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted (See PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients and ADVERSE REACTIONS).Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Proquin XR, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C.
difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD.
Hypertoxin producing strains of C.
difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy.
CDAD must be considered in all patients who represent with diarrhea following antibiotic use.
Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C.
difficile may need to be discontinued.
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C.
difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.Peripheral Neuropathy: Rare cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dyesthesias, and weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy, including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or is found to have deficits in light touch, pain, temperature, position, sense, vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.