Glipizide tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet for the control of hyperglycemia and its associated symptomatology in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM; type II), formerly known as maturity-onset diabetes, after an adequate trial of dietary therapy has proved unsatisfactory. In initiating treatment for non-insulin-dependent diabetes, diet should be emphasized as the primary form of treatment.
Caloric restriction and weight loss are essential in the obese diabetic patient.
Proper dietary management alone may be effective in controlling the blood glucose and symptoms of hyperglycemia.
The importance of regular physical activity should also be stressed, and cardiovascular risk factors should be identified, and corrective measures taken where possible. If this treatment program fails to reduce symptoms and/or blood glucose, the use of an oral sulfonylurea or insulin should be considered.
Use of glipizide must be viewed by both the physician and patient as a treatment in addition to diet, and not as a substitute for diet or as a convenient mechanism for avoiding dietary restraint.
Furthermore, loss of blood glucose control on diet alone also may be transient, thus requiring only short-term administration of glipizide. During maintenance programs, glipizide should be discontinued if satisfactory lowering of blood glucose is no longer achieved.Judgements should be based on regular clinical and laboratory evaluations. In considering the use of glipizide in asymptomatic patients, it should be recognized that controlling the blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes has not been definitely established to be effective in preventing the long-term cardiovascular or neural complications of diabetes.
Glipizide tablets are contraindicated in patients with: 1.
Known hypersensitivity to the drug. 2.
Diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma.This condition should be treated with insulin.
SPECIAL WARNING ON INCREASED RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY: The administration of oral hypoglycemic drugs has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality as compared to treatment with diet alone or diet plus insulin.
This warning is based on the study conducted by the University Group Diabetics Program (UGDP), a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs in preventing or delaying vascular complications in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
The study involved 823 patients who were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups.
( Diabetes, 19, supp.
2:747-830, 1970). UGDP reported that patients treated for 5 to 8 years with diet plus a fixed dose of tolbutamide (1.5 grams per day) had a rate of cardiovascular mortality approximately 2 ½ times that of patients treated with diet alone.
A significant increase in total mortality was not observed, but the use of tolbutamide was discontinued based on the increase in cardiovascular mortality, thus limiting the opportunity for the study to show an increase in overall mortality.
Despite controversy regarding the interpretation of these results, the findings of the UGDP study provide an adequate basis for this warning.The patient should be informed of the potential risks and advantages of glipizide and of alternative modes of therapy. Although only one drug in the sulfonylurea class (tolbutamide) was included in this study, it is prudent from a safety standpoint to consider that this warning may also apply to other oral hypoglycemic drugs in this class, in view of their close similarities in mode of action and chemical structure.