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Basic Drug Info
Drug Name:PERMAX
Manufacturer:Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Other Info:



Clinical Trials:


Indications and Usage

Permax is indicated as adjunctive treatment to levodopa/carbidopa in the management of the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease.Evidence to support the efficacy of pergolide as an antiparkinsonian adjunct was obtained in a multicenter study enrolling 376 patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease who were intolerant to l-dopa/carbidopa as manifested by moderate to severe dyskinesia and/or on-off phenomena.

On average, the patients evaluated had been on l-dopa/carbidopa for 3.9 years (range, 2 days to 16.8 years).

The administration of pergolide permitted a 5% to 30% reduction in the daily dose of l-dopa.

On average, these patients treated with pergolide maintained an equivalent or better clinical status than they exhibited at baseline.
Physical findings -- Objective evidence of disease perceptible to the examining physician.

Symptoms -- An indication that a person has a condition or disease. Some examples of symptoms are headache, fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and pain.

Parkinson Disease -- A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)

Dyskinetic syndrome -- Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.

Contraindications
Pergolide is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this drug or other ergot derivatives.
Hypersensitivity -- Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.

Warnings

Cardiac Valvulopathy and Fibrotic Complications (SEEBOXED WARNING).Falling Asleep During Activities of Daily Living—Patients treated with Permax have reported falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living, including the operation of motor vehicles which sometimes resulted in accidents.

Although many of these patients reported somnolence while on Permax, some perceived that they had no warning signs such as excessive drowsiness, and believed that they were alert immediately prior to the event.

Some of these events had been reported as late as 1 year after the initiation of treatment.Somnolence is a common occurrence in patients receiving Permax.

Many clinical experts believe that falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living always occurs in a setting of preexisting somnolence, although patients may not give such a history.

For this reason, prescribers should continually reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness, especially since some of the events occur well after the start of treatment.

Prescribers should also be aware that patients may not acknowledge drowsiness or sleepiness until directly questioned about drowsiness or sleepiness during specific activities.Before initiating treatment with Permax, patients should be advised of the potential to develop drowsiness and specifically asked about factors that may increase the risk with Permax such as concomitant sedating medications or the presence of sleep disorders.

If a patient develops significant daytime sleepiness or episodes of falling asleep during activities that require participation (e.g., conversations, eating, etc.), Permax should ordinarily be discontinued.

If a decision is made to continue Permax, patients should be advised to not drive and to avoid other potentially dangerous activities.While dose reduction may reduce the degree of somnolence, there is insufficient information to establish that dose reduction will eliminate episodes of falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living.Symptomatic Hypotension — In clinical trials, approximately 10% of patients taking pergolide with l-dopa versus 7% taking placebo with l-dopa experienced symptomatic orthostatic and/or sustained hypotension, especially during initial treatment.

With gradual dosage titration, tolerance to the hypotension usually develops.

It is therefore important to warn patients of the risk, to begin therapy with low doses, and to increase the dosage in carefully adjusted increments over a period of 3 to 4 weeks (seeDOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).Hallucinosis— In controlled trials, pergolide with l-dopa caused hallucinosis in about 14% of patients as opposed to 3% taking placebo with l-dopa.

This was of sufficient severity to cause discontinuation of treatment in about 3% of those enrolled; tolerance to this untoward effect was not observed.Fatalities— In the placebo-controlled trial, 2 of 187 patients treated with placebo died as compared with 1 of 189 patients treated with pergolide.

Of the 2299 patients treated with pergolide in premarketing studies evaluated as of October 1988, 143 died while on the drug or shortly after discontinuing it.

Because the patient population under evaluation was elderly, ill, and at high risk for death, it seems unlikely that pergolide played any role in these deaths, but the possibility that pergolide shortens survival of patients cannot be excluded with absolute certainty.In particular, a case-by-case review of the clinical course of the patients who died failed to disclose any unique set of signs, symptoms, or laboratory results that would suggest that treatment with pergolide caused their deaths.

Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the patients who died were 65 years of age or older.

No death (other than a suicide) occurred within the first month of treatment; most of the patients who died had been on pergolide for years.

A relative frequency of the causes of death by organ system are: Pulmonary failure/Pneumonia, 35%; Cardiovascular, 30%; Cancer, 11%; Unknown, 8.4%; Infection, 3.5%; Extrapyramidal syndrome, 3.5%; Stroke, 2.1%; Dysphagia, 2.1%; Injury, 1.4%; Suicide, 1.4%; Dehydration, 0.7%; Glomerulonephritis, 0.7%.

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