Hypertension: Lisinopril tablet is indicated for the treatment of hypertension.
It may be used alone as initial therapy or concomitantly with other classes of antihypertensive agents.
Heart Failure: Lisinopril tablet is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the management of heart failure in patients who are not responding adequately to diuretics and digitalis.
Acute Myocardial Infarction: Lisinopril tablet is indicated for the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction, to improve survival.
Patients should receive, as appropriate, the standard recommended treatments such as thrombolytics, aspirin and beta-blockers.
In using lisinopril tablet, consideration should be given to the fact that another angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease, and that available data are insufficient to show that lisinopril tablet does not have a similar risk.
(See WARNINGS.) In considering the use of lisinopril tablet, it should be noted that in controlled clinical trials ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in Black patients than in non-Blacks.In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in Black than in non-Black patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions).
Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including lisinopril) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.
Head and Neck Angioedema: Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx has been reported in patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors including lisinopril.
This may occur at any time during treatment.
ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in Black than in non-Black patients.
Lisinopril should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms has occurred.
Even in those instances where swelling of only the tongue is involved, without respiratory distress, patients may require prolonged observation since treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient.
Very rarely, fatalities have been reported due to angioedema associated with laryngeal edema or tongue edema.
Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery.
Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx, likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, e.g., subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) and/or measures necessary to ensure a patent airway should be promptly provided.
(See ADVERSE REACTIONS.) Intestinal Angioedema: Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors.
These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal.
The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor.
Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor.
(See also INDICATIONS AND USAGE and CONTRAINDICATIONS.) Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization: Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions.
In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure: Sudden and potentially life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in some patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes (e.g., AN69®*) and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor.
In such patients, dialysis must be stopped immediately, and aggressive therapy for anaphylactoid reactions be initiated.
Symptoms have not been relieved by antihistamines in these situations.
In these patients, consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent.
Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
Hypotension: Excessive hypotension is rare in patients with uncomplicated hypertension treated with lisinopril alone.
Patients with heart failure given lisinopril commonly have some reduction in blood pressure, with peak blood pressure reduction occurring 6 to 8 hours post dose.
Evidence from the two-dose ATLAS trial suggested that incidence of hypotension may increase with dose of lisinopril in heart failure patients.
Discontinuation of therapy because of continuing symptomatic hypotension usually is not necessary when dosing instructions are followed; caution should be observed when initiating therapy.
(See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Patients at risk of excessive hypotension, sometimes associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia, and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death, include those with the following conditions or characteristics: heart failure with systolic blood pressure below 100 mmHg, hyponatremia, high dose diuretic therapy, recent intensive diuresis or increase in diuretic dose, renal dialysis, or severe volume and/or salt depletion of any etiology.
It may be advisable to eliminate the diuretic (except in patients with heart failure), reduce the diuretic dose or increase salt intake cautiously before initiating therapy with lisinopril in patients at risk for excessive hypotension who are able to tolerate such adjustments.
(See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions and ADVERSE REACTIONS.) Patients with acute myocardial infarction in the GISSI-3 trial had a higher (9.0% versus 3.7%) incidence of persistent hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg for more than 1 hour) when treated with lisinopril.
Treatment with lisinopril must not be initiated in acute myocardial infarction patients at risk of further serious hemodynamic deterioration after treatment with a vasodilator (e.g., systolic blood pressure of 100 mmHg or lower) or cardiogenic shock.
In patients at risk of excessive hypotension, therapy should be started under very close medical supervision and such patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of lisinopril and/or diuretic is increased.
Similar considerations may apply to patients with ischemic heart or cerebrovascular disease, or in patients with acute myocardial infarction, in whom an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident.
If excessive hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline.
A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses of lisinopril which usually can be given without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
If symptomatic hypotension develops, a dose reduction or discontinuation of lisinopril or concomitant diuretic may be necessary.
Leukopenia/Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis: Another angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression, rarely in uncomplicated patients but more frequently in patients with renal impairment especially if they also have a collagen vascular disease.
Available data from clinical trials of lisinopril are insufficient to show that lisinopril does not cause agranulocytosis at similar rates.
Marketing experience has revealed rare cases of leukopenia/neutropenia and bone marrow depression in which a causal relationship to lisinopril cannot be excluded.
Periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts in patients with collagen vascular disease and renal disease should be considered.
Hepatic Failure: Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and (sometimes) death.
The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood.
Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality: ACE inhibitors can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered to pregnant women.
Several dozen cases have been reported in the world literature.
When pregnancy is detected, ACE inhibitors should be discontinued as soon as possible.
The use of ACE inhibitors during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with fetal and neonatal injury, including hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible renal failure, and death.
Oligohydramnios has also been reported, presumably resulting from decreased fetal renal function; oligohydramnios in this setting has been associated with fetal limb contractures, craniofacial deformation, and hypoplastic lung development.
Prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, and patent ductus arteriosus have also been reported, although it is not clear whether these occurrences were due to the ACE-inhibitor exposure.
These adverse effects do not appear to have resulted from intrauterine ACE-inhibitor exposure that has been limited to the first trimester.
Mothers whose embryos and fetuses are exposed to ACE inhibitors only during the first trimester should be so informed.
Nonetheless, when patients become pregnant, physicians should make every effort to discontinue the use of lisinopril as soon as possible.
Rarely (probably less often than once in every thousand pregnancies), no alternative to ACE inhibitors will be found.
In these rare cases, the mothers should be apprised of the potential hazards to their fetuses, and serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment.
If oligohydramnios is observed, lisinopril should be discontinued unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother.
Contraction stress testing (CST), a nonstress test (NST), or biophysical profiling (BPP), may be appropriate, depending upon the week of pregnancy.
Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Infants with histories of in utero exposure to ACE inhibitors should be closely observed for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia.
If oliguria occurs, attention should be directed toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion.
Exchange transfusion or dialysis may be required as means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
Lisinopril, which crosses the placenta, has been removed from neonatal circulation by peritoneal dialysis with some clinical benefit, and theoretically may be removed by exchange transfusion, although there is no experience with the latter procedure.
No teratogenic effects of lisinopril were seen in studies of pregnant rats, mice, and rabbits.On a mg/kg basis, the doses used were up to 625 times (in mice), 188 times (in rats), and 0.6 times (in rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose.