The following noncontraceptive health benefits related to the use of oral contraceptives are supported by epidemiological studies which largely utilized oral-contraceptive formulations containing doses exceeding 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol or 0.05 mg of mestranol.Effects on menses: Increased menstrual cycle regularity Decreased blood loss and decreased incidence of iron-deficiency anemia Decreased incidence of dysmenorrhea Effects related to inhibition of ovulation: Decreased incidence of functional ovarian cysts Decreased incidence of ectopic pregnancies Effects from long-term use: Decreased incidence of fibroadenomas and fibrocystic disease of the breast Decreased incidence of acute pelvic inflammatory disease Decreased incidence of endometrial cancer Decreased incidence of ovarian cancer
Oral contraceptives are indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use this product as a method of contraception.
Oral contraceptives are highly effective.
Table I lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception.
The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD, and implants depends upon the reliability with which they are used.
Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates.
Table I: Percentage Of Women Experiencing An Unintended Pregnancy During The First Year Of Typical Use And The First Year Of Perfect Use Of Contraception And The Percentage Continuing Use At The End Of The First Year.
% of Women Experiencing anUnintended Pregnancy within the FirstYear of Use % of Women Continuing Use at One Year 3 Method(1)Typical Use 1(2) Perfect Use 2(3) (4) Lactation Amenorrhea Method: LAM is a highly effective, temporary method of contraception.9 Source: Trussell J.
In: Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Stewart F, Cates W, Stewart GK, Kowel D, Guest F.
Contraceptive Technology: Seventeenth Revised Edition.
New York NY: Irvington Publishers; 1998.
1. Among typical couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason.
2. Among couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time) and who use it perfectly (both consistently and correctly), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason.
3. Among couples attempting to avoid pregnancy, the percentage who continue to use a method for one year.
4. The percents becoming pregnant in columns (2) and (3) are based on data from populations where contraception is not used and from women who cease using contraception in order to become pregnant.
Among such populations, about 89% become pregnant within one year.
This estimate was lowered slightly (to 85%) to represent the percent who would become pregnant within one year among women now relying on reversible methods of contraception if they abandoned contraception altogether.
5. Foams, creams, gels, vaginal suppositories, and vaginal film.
6. Cervical mucus (ovulation) method supplemented by calendar in the pre-ovulatory and basal body temperature in the post-ovulatory phases.
7. With spermicidal cream or jelly.
8. Without spermicides.
9. However, to maintain effective protection against pregnancy, another method of contraception must be used as soon as menstruation resumes, the frequency or duration of breastfeeds is reduced, bottle feeds are introduced, or the baby reaches 6 months of age.Chance 485 85 Spermicides 526 6 40 Periodic abstinence 25 63 Calendar 9 Ovulation Method 3 Sympto-Thermal 62 Post-Ovulation 1 Cap 7 Parous Women 40 26 42 Nulliparous Women 20 9 56 Sponge Parous Women 40 20 42 Nulliparous Women 20 9 56 Diaphragm 720 6 56 Withdrawal 19 4 Condom 8 Female (Reality) 21 5 56 Male 14 3 61 Pill 5 71 Progestin only 0.5 Combined 0.1 IUD Progesterone T 2.0 1.5 81 Copper T380A 0.8 0.6 78 LNg 20 0.1 0.1 81 Depo-Provera®0.3 0.3 70 LevonorgestrelImplants (Norplant®) 0.05 0.05 88 Female Sterilization 0.5 0.5 100 Male Sterilization 0.15 0.10 100
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular side effects from oral-contraceptive use.
This risk increases with age and with the extent of smoking (in epidemiologic studies, 15 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a significantly increased risk) and is quite marked in women over 35 years of age.Women who use oral contraceptives should be strongly advised not to smoke.