ResoundingHealth
Search
  
Basic Drug Info
Drug Name:Glycopyrrolate
Manufacturer:AMERICAN REGENT, INC.
Other Info:

Physical Incompatibility: Since the stability of glycopyrrolate is questionable above a pH of 6.0 do not combine glycopyrrolate injection in the same syringe with Brevital® (methohexital Na); Chloromycetin® (chloramphenicol Na succinate); Dramamine® (dimenhydrinate); Nembutal® (pentobarbital Na); Pentothal® (thiopental Na); Seconal® (secobarbital Na); sodium bicarbonate (Abbott); Valium® (diazepam); Decadron® (dexamethasone Na phosphate); or Talwin® (pentazocine lactate).

These mixtures will result in a pH higher than 6.0 and may result in gas production or precipitation.



Clinical Trials:


Indications and Usage

In Anesthesia: Glycopyrrolate injection is indicated for use as a preoperative antimuscarinic to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions; to reduce the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions; and, to block cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during induction of anesthesia and intubation.

When indicated, glycopyrrolate injection may be used intraoperatively to counteract surgically or drug-induced or vagal reflexes associated arrhythmias.

Glycopyrrolate protects against the peripheral muscarinic effects (e.g., bradycardia and excessive secretions) of cholinergic agents such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine given to reverse the neuromuscular blockade due to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.
Heartburn acidity --

Absence of sensation --

cardiac arrhythmia -- any variation from the normal rhythm or rate of the heart beat.

Neuromuscular inhibition --

Observation of Neuromuscular Block --

Contraindications
Known hypersensitivity to glycopyrrolate or any of its inactive ingredients.In addition, in the management of peptic ulcer patients, because of the longer duration of therapy, glycopyrrolate injection may be contraindicated in patients with the following concurrent conditions: glaucoma; obstructive uropathy (for example, bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy); obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract (as in achalasia, pyloroduodenal stenosis, etc.); paralytic ileus, intestinal atony of the elderly or debilitated patient; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis; toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis; myasthenia gravis.
Hypersensitivity -- Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.

Peptic Ulcer -- Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).

Obstructive Uropathy --

Bladder neck obstruction -- Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE GLAND.

Diseases, Obstructive --

Esophageal achalasia -- A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).

Acquired stenosis --

Stenosis -- The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.

Stenosis, unspecified --

Paralytic Ileus --

Myasthenia Gravis -- A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)

Warnings

This drug should be used with great caution, if at all, in patients with glaucoma.Exposure to excessive amounts of benzyl alcohol has been associated with toxicity (hypotension, metabolic acidosis), particularly in neonates, and an increased incidence of kernicterus, particularly in small preterm infants.

There have been rare reports of deaths, primarily in preterm infants, associated with exposure to excessive amounts of benzyl alcohol.

The amount of benzyl alcohol from medications is usually considered negligible compared to that received in flush solutions containing benzyl alcohol.

Administration of high dosages of medications containing this preservative must take into account the total amount of benzyl alcohol administered.

The amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known.

If the patient requires more than the recommended dosages or other medications containing this preservative, the practitioner must consider the daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from these combined sources (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).Glycopyrrolate injection may produce drowsiness or blurred vision.

The patient should be cautioned regarding activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.In addition, in the presence of fever, high environmental temperature and/or during physical exercise, heat prostration can occur with use of anticholinergic agents including glycopyrrolate (due to decreased sweating), particularly in children and the elderly.Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy.

In this instance treatment with glycopyrrolate injection would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.
Branded Drugs
The following US Branded drugs contain Glycopyrrolate


ROBINUL -- BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORP ANESTHESIA AND CRITICAL CARE

ROBINUL -- AH ROBINS CO

ROBINUL -- SCIELE PHARMA INC

ROBINUL FORTE -- SCIELE PHARMA INC


This web-site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your doctor. It should not to be used for self-diagnosis or treatment.