In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use.
Infections with any pathogen including viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan or helminthic infections, in any location of the body, may be associated with the use of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents that affect cellular immunity, humoral immunity, or neutrophil function.1These infections may be mild, but can be severe and at times fatal.
With increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases.2 There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.Usage in pregnancy: Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, the use of these drugs in pregnancy, nursing mothers or women of childbearing potential requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against the potential hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus.
Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy, should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium.
These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses.
Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary.
All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.Administration of live or live, attenuated vaccines is contraindicated in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids.
Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered to patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids; however, the response to such vaccines may be diminished.
Indicated immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients receiving nonimmunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids.The use of cortisone acetate in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur.
During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals.
Chicken pox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids.
In such children or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure.
How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known.
The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known.
If exposed to chicken pox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated.
If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated.
(See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chicken pox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Similarly, corticosteroids should be used with great care in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation.In such patients, corticosteroidinduced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia.