Amiloride HCl is indicated as adjunctive treatment with thiazide diuretics or other kaliureticdiuretic agents in congestive heart failure or hypertension to:help restore normal serum potassium levels in patients who develop hypokalemia on the kaliuretic diuretic.
prevent development of hypokalemia in patients who would be exposed to particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop, e.g., digitalized patients or patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias.
The use of potassium-conserving agents is often unnecessary in patients receiving diuretics for uncomplicated essential hypertension when such patients have a normal diet.
Amiloride HCl has little additive diuretic or antihypertensive effect when added to a thiazide diuretic.Amiloride HCl should rarely be used alone.
It has weak (compared with thiazides) diuretic and antihypertensive effects.
Used as single agents, potassium sparing diuretics, including amiloride HCl, result in an increased risk of hyperkalemia (approximately 10% with amiloride).Amiloride HCl should be used alone only when persistent hypokalemia has been documented and only with careful titration of the dose and close monitoring of serum electrolytes.
Hyperkalemia Amiloride HCl should not be used in the presence of elevated serum potassium levels (greater than 5.5 mEq per liter).Antikaliuretic Therapy or Potassium SupplementationAmiloride HCl should not be given to patients receiving other potassium-conserving agents, such as spironolactone or triamterene.
Potassium supplementation in the form of medication, potassium-containing salt substitutes or a potassium-rich diet should not be used with amiloride HCl except in severe and/or refractory cases of hypokalemia.
Such concomitant therapy can be associated with rapid increases in serum potassium levels.
If potassium supplementation is used, careful monitoring of the serum potassium level is necessary.Impaired Renal FunctionAnuria, acute or chronic renal insufficiency, and evidence of diabetic nephropathy are contraindications to the use of amiloride HCl.
Patients with evidence of renal functional impairment (blood urea nitrogen [BUN] levels over 30 mg per 100 mL or serum creatinine levels over 1.5 mg per 100 mL) or diabetes mellitus should not receive the drug without careful, frequent and continuing monitoring of serum electrolytes, creatinine, and BUN levels.Potassium retention associated with the use of an antikaliuretic agent is accentuated in the presence of renal impairment and may result in the rapid development of hyperkalemia.HypersensitivityAmiloride HCl is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product.
Like other potassium-conserving agents, amiloride may cause hyperkalemia (serum potassium levels greater than 5.5 mEq per liter) which, if uncorrected, is potentially fatal.
Hyperkalemia occurs commonly (about 10%) when amiloride is used without a kaliuretic diuretic.
This incidence is greater in patients with renal impairment, diabetes mellitus (with or without recognized renal insufficiency), and in the elderly.
When amiloride is used concomitantly with a thiazide diuretic in patients without these complications, the risk of hyperkalemia is reduced to about 1-2%.It is thus essential to monitor serum potassium levels carefully in any patient receiving amiloride, particularly when it is first introduced, at the time of diuretic dosage adjustments, and during any illness that could affect renal function.