MD-76R may be injected either centrally, into the superior or inferior vena cava, or peripherally into an appropriate arm vein.
For central injections, catheters may be introduced at the antecubital fossa into either the basilic or cephalic vein or at the leg into the femoral vein and advanced to the distal segment of the corresponding vena cava.For peripheral injections, the catheter is introduced at the antecubital fossa into an appropriate size arm vein.
In order to reduce the potential for extravastion during peripheral injection, a catheter of approximately 20 cm in length should be employed.Depending on the area to be imaged, the usual dose range is 20-60 mL.
Injections may be repeated as necessary.Central catheter injections are usually made with a power injector with an injection rate of between 10 and 30 mL/second.
When making peripheral injections, rates of 12 to 20 mL/second should be used, depending on the size of the vein.Also, since contrast medium may remain in the arm vein for an extended period following injection, it may be advisable to flush the vein, immediately following injection with an appropriate volume (20-25 mL) of 5% Dextrose in water or normal saline.
MD-76R is indicated in excretion urography, aortography, pediatric angiocardiography, peripheral arteriography, selective renal arteriography, selective visceral arteriography, selective coronary arteriography with or without left ventriculography, contrast enhancement of computed tomographic brain imaging and for intravenous digital subtraction angiography.MD-76R is also indicated for the contrast enhancement in body computed tomography.
(See Clinical Pharmacology).
Continuous or multiple scans separated by intervals of 1-3 seconds during the first 30-90 seconds post-injection of the contrast medium (dynamic CT scanning) provide enhancement of diagnostic significance.
Subsets of patients in whom delayed body CT scans might be helpful have not been identified.
Inconsistent results have been reported and abnormal and normal tissues may be isodense during the time frame used for delayed CT scanning.
The risks of such indiscriminate use of contrast media are well known and such use is not recommended.At present, consistent results have been documented using dynamic CT techniques only.
SEVERE ADVERSE EVENTS — INADVERTENT INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRATION: Serious adverse reactions have been reported due to the inadvertent intrathecal administration of iodinated contrast media that are not indicated for intrathecal use.
These serious adverse reactions include: death, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, coma, paralysis, arachnoiditis, acute renal failure, cardiac arrest, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, and brain edema.
Special attention must be given to insure that this drug product is not administered intrathecally.Ionic iodinated contrast media inhibit blood coagulation, in vitro, more than nonionic contrast media.
Nonetheless, it is prudent to avoid prolonged contact of blood with syringes containing ionic contrast media.
Serious, rarely fatal, thromboembolic events causing myocardial infarction and stroke have been reported during angiographic procedures with both ionic and nonionic contrast media.
Therefore, meticulous intravascular administration technique is necessary, particularly during angiographic procedures, to minimize thromboembolic events.
Numerous factors, including length of procedure, catheter and syringe material, underlying disease state, and concomitant medications may contribute to the development of thromboembolic events.
For these reasons, meticulous angiographic techniques are recommended including close attention to guidewire and catheter manipulation, use of manifold systems and/or three-way stopcocks, frequent catheter flushing with heparinized saline solutions and minimizing the length of the procedure.
The use of plastic syringes in place of glass syringes has been reported to decrease but not eliminate the likelihood of in vitro clotting.Serious or fatal reactions have been associated with the administration of iodine containing radiopaque media.
It is of utmost importance to be completely prepared to treat any contrast medium reaction.Serious neurologic sequelae, including permanent paralysis, have been reported following injections of concentrated contrast media into arteries supplying the spinal cord.
The injection of a contrast medium should never be made following the administration of vasopressors since they strongly potentiate neurologic effects.
(See PRECAUTIONS pertaining to Aortography.)In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, a rare association between contrast administration and clinical deterioration, including convulsions and death, has been reported.
Therefore, administration of intravascular iodinated ionic contrast media in these patients should be undertaken with caution.A definite risk exists in the use of intravascular contrast agents in patients who are known to have multiple myeloma.
In such instances there has been anuria resulting in progressive uremia, renal failure and eventually death.
Although neither the contrast agent nor dehydration has separately proved to be the cause of anuria in myeloma, it has been speculated that the combination of both may be the causative factor.
The risk in myelomatous patients is not a contraindication to the procedures; however, partial dehydration in the preparation of these patients for the examination is not recommended since this may predispose to the precipitation of myeloma protein in the renal tubules.
No form of therapy, including dialysis, has been successful in reversing this effect.
Myeloma, which occurs most commonly in persons over age 40, should be considered before intravascular administration of a contrast agent.Administration of radiopaque materials to patients known or suspected to have pheochromocytoma should be performed with extreme caution.
If, in the opinion of the physician, the possible benefits of such procedures outweigh the considered risks, the amount of radiopaque medium injected should be kept to an absolute minimum.
The blood pressure should be assessed throughout the procedure and measures for treatment of a hypertensive crisis should be available.Contrast media have been shown to promote the phenomenon of sickling in individuals who are homozygous for sickle cell disease when the material is injected intravenously or intra-arterially.In patients with advanced renal disease, iodinated contrast media should be used with caution, and only when the need for the examination dictates, since excretion of the medium may be impaired.
Patients with combined renal and hepatic disease, those with severe hypertension or congestive heart failure and recent renal transplant recipients may present an additional risk.Renal failure has been reported in patients with liver dysfunction who were given an oral cholecystographic agent followed by an intravascular iodinated radiopaque agent and also in patients with occult renal disease, notably diabetics and hypertensives.
In these classes of patients there should be no fluid restriction and every attempt should be made to maintain normal hydration, prior to contrast medium administration, since dehydration is the single most important factor influencing further renal impairment.Acute renal failure has been reported in diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and in susceptible nondiabetic patients (often elderly with pre-existing renal disease) following the administration of iodinated contrast agents.Therefore, careful consideration of the potential risks should be given before performing this radiographic procedure in these patients.Caution should be exercised in performing contrast medium studies in patients with endotoxemia and/or those with elevated body temperatures.Reports of thyroid storm occurring following the intravascular use of iodinated radiopaque agents in patients with hyperthyroidism or with an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule suggest that this additional risk be evaluated in such patients before use of this drug.Avoid accidental introduction of this preparation into the subarachnoid space since even small amounts may produce convulsions and possible fatal reactions.Convulsions have occurred in patients with primary or metastatic cerebral lesions following administration of contrast media for contrast enhancement of CT brain images.