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Name: Alternative medicine

Description: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

Creator: Dr21205

This casebook is published and has been read 2759 times.

The author of this casebook has identified the following medical topics as being highly relevant to this casebook.

  • Doctor of Chiropractic -- The Doctor of Chiropractic degree is a degree awarded for graduates who have completed a medical doctoral program in accredited chiropractic college. The academic and clinical training include, but are not limited to, the use of current diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that specifically involve the adjustment and manipulation of the articulations and adjacent tissues of the human body, particularly of the spinal column. State laws, as well as the nation's antitrust laws, may allow Doctors of Chiropractic to utilize ancillary health care procedures commonly referred to as being in the common domain.
  • Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine -- The Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree is the first-professional, postgraduate degree awarded to the graduates who have completed an osteopathic medicine program which is designed to prepare physicians who are especially concerned with maintaining continuing personal relationships with patients, their families and their optimum interaction with the community environmental patterns.
  • Doctor of Medicine -- The Doctor of Medicine degree is the first-professional postgraduate degree that requires completion of a program that meets all of the following criteria: completion of the academic requirements to begin practice in the profession; at least 2 years of college work prior to entering the program; and a total of at least 6 academic years of college work to complete a program of studies in any branch of medical science, including prior required college work plus the length of the professional program itself. The academic standard is equivalent to Ph.D. science.
Notes

Definition

Forms of treatment that are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. These practices generally are not considered standard medical approaches. Standard treatments go through a long and careful research process to prove they are safe and effective, but less is known about most types of CAM. CAM may include dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, acupuncture, massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. Also called CAM.

Introduction

 There are many terms used to describe approaches to health care that are outside the realm of conventional medicineMedicine as practiced by holders of M.D. (medical doctor) or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy) degrees and by their allied health professionals such as physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses. as practiced in the United States. This fact sheet explains how the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), a component of the National Institutes of Health, defines some of the key terms used in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, and alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine.

What is CAM?

CAM is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered to be part of conventional medicine. While scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions that are yet to be answered through well-designed scientific studies—questions such as whether these therapies are safe and whether they work for the purposes for which they are used.

Are complementary medicine and alternative medicine different from each other?

Yes, they are different.

    * Complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine. An example of a complementary therapy is using aromatherapyA therapy in which the scent of essential oils from flowers, herbs, and trees is inhaled to promote health and well-being. to help lessen a patient's discomfort following surgery.

    * Alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine. An example of an alternative therapy is using a special diet to treat cancer instead of undergoing surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy that has been recommended by a conventional doctor. 

What is integrative medicine?

Integrative medicine combines treatments from conventional medicine and CAM for which there is evidence of safety and effectiveness. It is also called integrated medicineAn approach to medicine that combines treatments from conventional medicine and CAM for which there is some high-quality scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness..

What are the major types of complementary and alternative medicine?

1. Whole Medical Systems

Whole medical systems are built upon complete systems of theory and practice. Often, these systems have evolved apart from and earlier than the conventional medical approach used in the United States. Examples of whole medical systems that have developed in Western cultures include homeopathic medicineA whole medical system that originated in Europe. Homeopathy seeks to stimulate the body's ability to heal itself by giving very small doses of highly diluted substances that in larger doses would produce illness or symptoms (an approach called "like cures like"). and naturopathic medicineA whole medical system that originated in Europe. Naturopathy aims to support the body's ability to heal itself through the use of dietary and lifestyle changes together with CAM therapies such as herbs, massage, and joint manipulation.. Examples of systems that have developed in non-Western cultures include traditional traditional Chinese medicineA whole medical system that originated in China. It is based on the concept that disease results from disruption in the flow of qi and imbalance in the forces of yin and yang. Practices such as herbs, meditation, massage, and acupuncture seek to aid healing by restoring the yin-yang balance and the flow of qi. and AyurvedaA whole medical system that originated in India. It aims to integrate the body, mind, and spirit to prevent and treat disease. Therapies used include herbs, massage, and yoga..

2. Mind-Body Medicine

Mind-body medicine uses a variety of techniques designed to enhance the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. Some techniques that were considered CAM in the past have become mainstream (for example, patient support groups and cognitive-behavioral therapy). Other mind-body techniques are still considered CAM, including meditationA conscious mental process using certain techniques—such as focusing attention or maintaining a specific posture—to suspend the stream of thoughts and relax the body and mind., prayer, mental healing, and therapies that use creative outlets such as art, music, or dance.

3. Biologically Based Practices

Biologically based practices in CAM use substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins. Some examples include dietary supplements, herbal products, and the use of other so-called natural but as yet scientifically unproven therapies (for example, using shark cartilage to treat cancer).

4. Manipulative and Body-Based Practices 

Manipulative and body-based practices in CAM are based on manipulationThe application of controlled force to a joint, moving it beyond the normal range of motion in an effort to aid in restoring health. Manipulation may be performed as a part of other therapies or whole medical systems, including chiropractic medicine, massage, and naturopathy. and/or movement of one or more parts of the body. Some examples include chiropractic or osteopathic manipulationA type of manipulation practiced by osteopathic physicians. It is combined with physical therapy and instruction in proper posture., and massagePressing, rubbing, and moving muscles and other soft tissues of the body, primarily by using the hands and fingers. The aim is to increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the massaged area..

5. Energy Medicine

Energy therapies involve the use of energy fields. They are of two types:

    * Biofield therapies are intended to affect energy fields that purportedly surround and penetrate the human body. The existence of such fields has not yet been scientifically proven. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate biofields by applying pressure and/or manipulating the body by placing the hands in, or through, these fields. Examples include qi gongA component of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, and controlled breathing. The intent is to improve blood flow and the flow of qi., ReikiA therapy in which practitioners seek to transmit a universal energy to a person, either from a distance or by placing their hands on or near that person. The intent is to heal the spirit and thus the body., and Therapeutic TouchA therapy in which practitioners pass their hands over another person's body with the intent to use their own perceived healing energy to identify energy imbalances and promote health..

    * Bioelectromagnetic-based therapies involve the unconventional use of electromagnetic fields, such as pulsed fields, magnetic fields, or alternating-current or direct-current fields.

For More Information

NCCAM Clearinghouse

The NCCAM Clearinghouse provides information on CAM and NCCAM, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. Examples of publications include "Selecting a CAM Practitioner" and "Are You Considering Using CAM?" The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.

Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-888-644-6226
TTY (for deaf and hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615
Web site: nccam.nih.gov
E-mail: info@nccam.nih.gov

Sources of Information on Dietary Supplements

Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH

ODS seeks to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements by evaluating scientific information, supporting research, sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications and the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements database.

Web site: ods.od.nih.gov
E-mail: ods@nih.gov

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Web site: cfsan.fda.gov
Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-888-723-3366

Information includes "Tips for the Savvy Supplement User: Making Informed Decisions and Evaluating Information" (cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-savvy.html) and updated safety information on supplements (cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-warn.html). If you have experienced an adverse effect from a supplement, you can report it to the FDA's MedWatch program, which collects and monitors such information (1-800-FDA-1088 or fda.gov/medwatch/).

 

Bookmarks The following information, which has been distilled by the casebook author from this and other websites is particularly relevant to this casebook.
Bookmarks - Web
Web Page Notes Concepts
 National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [NCCAM] - nccam.nih.gov Home Page This is the place to start. U.S. Government information on complementary and alternative medicine (NCCAM)
 
 http://www.cancure.org/directory_clinics_outside US.htm List and links of non-U.S. centers for alternative medicine. Resounding Health Incorporated does not endorse any of these sites. They are provided for informational purposes only.
 
 Definition of complementary and alternative medicine - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms U.S. National Cancer Institute
 
 What Is CAM? [NCCAM CAM Basics] Information available En Espanol
 

This web-site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your doctor. It should not to be used for self-diagnosis or treatment.